Bends vs. Fittings

Custom pipe bends offer better flow characteristics and eliminate countless welds over factory elbows or forged fittings. Plus, pipe bends are a basic necessity if smart pigs are deployed throughout the system.

20″ 3D vs. 6D – Material Utilization

Bend Angle Radius Arc Length C/E Tan A Tan B O.A.L. Material Saved
3D (red) 90° 5′-0″ (3D) 7′-10 1/4″ 5′-0″ 7′-0″ 7′-0″ 21′-10 1/4″ N/A
6D (blue) 90° 10′-0″ (3D) 15′-8 1/2″ 10′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 19′-8 1/2″ 2′-1 3/4″

Benefits Include

Fittings are forged, mass produced products that cannot be custom ordered very easily.

Fittings typically have limited angles and limited radii.

A general misconception is that the cost is lower for a mass produced compared to a custom product; in the case of pipe fittings this is not necessarily true.

Induction Bends

  • Custom Angles
  • Custom Radius
  • Better Piggability
  • Coated before bends ship
  • No PUP’s needed for install
  • Entire bend including tangents can be made from mother pipe


  • (2) Extra Welds to add PUP
  • Extra cost to purchase PUP
  • (2) Extra Welds to X-Ray
  • Need additional 12′ line pipe to cover same span
  • Extra logistics with PUP’s